Borgmatic

Vedi anche

  • A collection of scripts I have written and/or adapted that I currently use on my systems as automated tasks 1

  • borgmatic 2

  • How to monitor your backups - borgmatic 3

  • How to deal with very large backups - borgmatic 4

  • Low power consumption home backup server project - Where is it? 5

  • Borgmatic Systemd unit service file 6

  • Borgmatic Systemd unit timer file 7

Let’s say we want to backup the root (/) partition. By using Borgmatic and these scripts you get:

  • compressed and differential backups

  • optional notifications before, after and during the backup

  • possibility browse through all versions of a backup and to have optional notifications about the mount action

Setup

Run as user

Instruction number

root

*

  1. install the dependencies

    apt-get install borgmatic python3-yaml
    
  2. install fpyutils. See reference

  3. create the jobs directories. See reference

    mkdir -p /home/jobs/{scripts,services}/by-user/root
    chmod 700 -R /home/jobs/{scripts,services}/by-user/root
    
  4. create the hooks script

    /home/jobs/scripts/by-user/root/borgmatic_hooks.py
     1#!/usr/bin/env python3
     2#
     3# borgmatic_hooks.py
     4#
     5# Copyright (C) 2021 Franco Masotti (franco \D\o\T masotti {-A-T-} tutanota \D\o\T com)
     6#
     7# This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
     8# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
     9# the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
    10# (at your option) any later version.
    11#
    12# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
    13# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
    14# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
    15# GNU General Public License for more details.
    16#
    17# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
    18# along with this program.  If not, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
    19r"""Send a notification after the backup oprtation."""
    20
    21import shlex
    22import sys
    23
    24import fpyutils
    25import yaml
    26
    27if __name__ == '__main__':
    28    configuration_file = shlex.quote(sys.argv[1])
    29    config = yaml.load(open(configuration_file, 'r'), Loader=yaml.SafeLoader)
    30    action = sys.argv[2]
    31    borgmatic_config_file = shlex.quote(sys.argv[3])
    32    repository = sys.argv[4]
    33    output = sys.argv[5]
    34    error = sys.argv[6]
    35
    36    message = action + ' on ' + repository + ' using ' + borgmatic_config_file + ': ' + '\n' + 'output: ' + output + '\n' + 'error: ' + error
    37
    38    print(message)
    39    if config['notify']['gotify']['enabled']:
    40        m = config['notify']['gotify']['message'] + '\n' + message
    41        fpyutils.notify.send_gotify_message(
    42            config['notify']['gotify']['url'],
    43            config['notify']['gotify']['token'], m,
    44            config['notify']['gotify']['title'],
    45            config['notify']['gotify']['priority'])
    46    if config['notify']['email']['enabled']:
    47        fpyutils.notify.send_email(message,
    48                                   config['notify']['email']['smtp_server'],
    49                                   config['notify']['email']['port'],
    50                                   config['notify']['email']['sender'],
    51                                   config['notify']['email']['user'],
    52                                   config['notify']['email']['password'],
    53                                   config['notify']['email']['receiver'],
    54                                   config['notify']['email']['subject'])
    
  5. create the mount script

    /home/jobs/scripts/by-user/root/borgmatic_mount.py
     1#!/usr/bin/env python3
     2#
     3# borgmatic_mount.py
     4#
     5# Copyright (C) 2020-2022 Franco Masotti (franco \D\o\T masotti {-A-T-} tutanota \D\o\T com)
     6#
     7# This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
     8# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
     9# the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
    10# (at your option) any later version.
    11#
    12# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
    13# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
    14# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
    15# GNU General Public License for more details.
    16#
    17# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
    18# along with this program.  If not, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
    19r"""Mount a borg backup."""
    20
    21import pathlib
    22import shlex
    23import sys
    24
    25import fpyutils
    26import yaml
    27
    28if __name__ == '__main__':
    29    configuration_file = shlex.quote(sys.argv[1])
    30    config = yaml.load(open(configuration_file, 'r'), Loader=yaml.SafeLoader)
    31    # Action may only be "mount" or "umount".
    32    action = shlex.quote(sys.argv[2])
    33
    34    pathlib.Path(shlex.quote(config['files']['mountpoint'])).mkdir(
    35        0o700, exist_ok=True, parents=True)
    36    fpyutils.shell.execute_command_live_output(
    37        shlex.quote(config['files']['borgmatic_binary'])
    38        + ' --config '
    39        + shlex.quote(config['files']['borgmatic_config'])
    40        + ' ' + action
    41        + ' --mount-point ' + shlex.quote(config['files']['mountpoint']))
    42
    43    message = 'borgmatic_mount using ' + shlex.quote(
    44        config['files']['borgmatic_config']
    45    ) + '\n' + 'action: ' + action + '\n' + 'on: ' + shlex.quote(
    46        config['files']['mountpoint'])
    47    if config['notify']['gotify']['enabled']:
    48        m = config['notify']['gotify']['message'] + '\n' + message
    49        fpyutils.notify.send_gotify_message(
    50            config['notify']['gotify']['url'],
    51            config['notify']['gotify']['token'], m,
    52            config['notify']['gotify']['title'],
    53            config['notify']['gotify']['priority'])
    54    if config['notify']['email']['enabled']:
    55        fpyutils.notify.send_email(message,
    56                                   config['notify']['email']['smtp_server'],
    57                                   config['notify']['email']['port'],
    58                                   config['notify']['email']['sender'],
    59                                   config['notify']['email']['user'],
    60                                   config['notify']['email']['password'],
    61                                   config['notify']['email']['receiver'],
    62                                   config['notify']['email']['subject'])
    
  6. create the borgmatic service

    /home/jobs/services/by-user/root/borgmatic.myhostname_root.service
     1#
     2# borgmatic.myhostname_root.service
     3#
     4# Copyright (C) 2016-2020 Dan Helfman <https://projects.torsion.org/witten/borgmatic/raw/branch/master/sample/systemd/borgmatic.service>
     5#               2020-2022 Franco Masotti (franco \D\o\T masotti {-A-T-} tutanota \D\o\T com)
     6#
     7# This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
     8# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
     9# the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
    10# (at your option) any later version.
    11#
    12# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
    13# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
    14# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
    15# GNU General Public License for more details.
    16#
    17# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
    18# along with this program.  If not, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
    19
    20[Unit]
    21Description=borgmatic myhostname_root backup
    22Wants=network-online.target
    23After=network-online.target
    24ConditionACPower=true
    25Requires=backed-up-mountpoint.mount
    26Requires=mnt-backups-myhostname_root.mount
    27After=backed-up-mountpoint.mount
    28After=mnt-backups-myhostname_root.mount
    29
    30[Service]
    31Type=oneshot
    32
    33# Lower CPU and I/O priority.
    34Nice=19
    35CPUSchedulingPolicy=batch
    36IOSchedulingClass=best-effort
    37IOSchedulingPriority=7
    38IOWeight=100
    39
    40# Do not retry.
    41Restart=no
    42
    43# Prevent rate limiting of borgmatic log events. If you are using an older version of systemd that
    44# doesn't support this (pre-240 or so), you may have to remove this option.
    45LogRateLimitIntervalSec=0
    46
    47# Delay start to prevent backups running during boot.
    48ExecStartPre=/usr/bin/sleep 1m
    49ExecStart=/usr/bin/systemd-inhibit --who="borgmatic" --why="Prevent interrupting scheduled backup" /usr/bin/borgmatic --config /home/jobs/scripts/by-user/root/borgmatic.myhostname_root.yaml --syslog-verbosity 1
    50
    51User=root
    52Group=root
    53
    54[Install]
    55WantedBy=multi-user.target
    
  7. create the borgmatic timer

    /home/jobs/services/by-user/root/borgmatic.myhostname_root.timer
     1#
     2# borgmatic.myhostname_root.timer
     3#
     4# Copyright (C) 2020-2022 Franco Masotti (franco \D\o\T masotti {-A-T-} tutanota \D\o\T com)
     5#
     6# This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
     7# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
     8# the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
     9# (at your option) any later version.
    10#
    11# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
    12# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
    13# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
    14# GNU General Public License for more details.
    15#
    16# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
    17# along with this program.  If not, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
    18
    19[Unit]
    20Description=Once a day borgmatic myhostname_root backup
    21
    22[Timer]
    23OnCalendar=*-*-* 3:00:00
    24Persistent=true
    25
    26[Install]
    27WantedBy=timers.target
    
  8. create the borgmatic mount service

    /home/jobs/services/by-user/root/borgmatic-mount.myhostname_root.service
     1#
     2# borgmatic-mount.myhostname_root.service
     3#
     4# Copyright (C) 2020-2022 Franco Masotti (franco \D\o\T masotti {-A-T-} tutanota \D\o\T com)
     5#
     6# This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
     7# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
     8# the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
     9# (at your option) any later version.
    10#
    11# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
    12# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
    13# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
    14# GNU General Public License for more details.
    15#
    16# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
    17# along with this program.  If not, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
    18
    19[Unit]
    20Description=borgmatic myhostname_root mount and umount
    21
    22[Service]
    23Type=simple
    24RemainAfterExit=yes
    25ExecStart=/home/jobs/scripts/by-user/root/borgmatic_mount.py /home/jobs/scripts/by-user/root/borgmatic_mount.myhostname_root.yaml 'mount'
    26ExecStop=/home/jobs/scripts/by-user/root/borgmatic_mount.py /home/jobs/scripts/by-user/root/borgmatic_mount.myhostname_root.yaml 'umount'
    27User=root
    28Group=root
    
  9. create a borgmatic hooks configuration file

    /home/jobs/scripts/by-user/root/borgmatic_hooks.myhostname_root.yaml
     1#
     2# borgmatic_hooks.myhostname_your_source_mountpoint.conf
     3#
     4# Copyright (C) 2020-2022 Franco Masotti (franco \D\o\T masotti {-A-T-} tutanota \D\o\T com)
     5#
     6# This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
     7# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
     8# the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
     9# (at your option) any later version.
    10#
    11# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
    12# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
    13# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
    14# GNU General Public License for more details.
    15#
    16# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
    17# along with this program.  If not, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
    18
    19notify:
    20    email:
    21        enabled: true
    22        smtp_server: 'smtp.gmail.com'
    23        port: 465
    24        sender: 'myusername@gmail.com'
    25        user: 'myusername'
    26        password: 'my awesome password'
    27        receiver: 'myusername@gmail.com'
    28        subject: 'borgmatic backup'
    29    gotify:
    30        enabled: true
    31        url: '<gotify url>'
    32        token: '<app token>'
    33        title: 'borgmatic backup'
    34        message: 'borgmatic backup completed'
    35        priority: 5
    
  10. create a borgmatic mount configuration file

    /home/jobs/scripts/by-user/root/borgmatic_mount.myhostname_root.yaml
     1#
     2# borgmatic_mount.myhostname_root.yaml
     3#
     4# Copyright (C) 2020-2022 Franco Masotti (franco \D\o\T masotti {-A-T-} tutanota \D\o\T com)
     5#
     6# This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
     7# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
     8# the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
     9# (at your option) any later version.
    10#
    11# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
    12# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
    13# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
    14# GNU General Public License for more details.
    15#
    16# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
    17# along with this program.  If not, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
    18
    19files:
    20    borgmatic_config: '/home/jobs/scripts/by-user/root/borgmatic.myhostname_root.yaml'
    21    mountpoint: '/tmp/borgmatic.myhostname_root'
    22    borgmatic_binary: '/usr/bin/borgmatic'
    23
    24notify:
    25    email:
    26        enabled: true
    27        smtp_server: 'smtp.gmail.com'
    28        port: 465
    29        sender: 'myusername@gmail.com'
    30        user: 'myusername'
    31        password: 'my awesome password'
    32        receiver: 'myusername@gmail.com'
    33        subject: 'borgmatic mount'
    34    gotify:
    35        enabled: true
    36        url: '<gotify url>'
    37        token: '<app token>'
    38        title: 'borgmatic mount'
    39        message: 'borgmatic mount'
    40        priority: 5
    

New repository

Vedi anche

  • borg init — Borg - Deduplicating Archiver 1.2.0 documentation 8

Before enabling the backup you need to decide exactly where to backup the directory, what to exclude, etc…

In this example we are not using Borg’s encryption because:

  • it works with older versions of borg

  • data is simpler to recover in case things go wrong

  • these are not to be considered offsite backups

By using Borgmatic you can either decide to backup on a local directory or on a remote machine via SSH.

Types of backup

Run as user

Instruction number

root

*

If you are backing up on a local directory you simply have to create a new repository according to the configuration.

  1. create a new configuration file for the local backup

    /home/jobs/scripts/by-user/root/borgmatic.myhostname_root.yaml
     1#
     2# borgmatic.myhostname_root.yaml
     3#
     4# Copyright (C) 2014-2020 Dan Helfman <https://torsion.org/borgmatic/docs/reference/config.yaml>
     5#               2020-2022 Franco Masotti (franco \D\o\T masotti {-A-T-} tutanota \D\o\T com)
     6#
     7# This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
     8# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
     9# the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
    10# (at your option) any later version.
    11#
    12# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
    13# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
    14# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
    15# GNU General Public License for more details.
    16#
    17# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
    18# along with this program.  If not, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
    19
    20location:
    21    source_directories:
    22        - /backed/up/mountpoint
    23    repositories:
    24        - /mnt/backups/myhostname_root.borg
    25    exclude_patterns:
    26        - /data
    27        - /proc
    28        - /sys
    29        - /tmp
    30        - /run
    31        - /mnt
    32        - /media
    33        - /lost+found
    34storage:
    35    checkpoint_interval: 900
    36    lock_wait: 120
    37retention:
    38    keep_within: 1w
    39    keep_monthly: 1
    40consistency:
    41    checks:
    42        - disabled
    43output:
    44    color: false
    45hooks:
    46    before_backup:
    47        - /home/jobs/scripts/by-user/root/borgmatic_hooks.py /home/jobs/scripts/by-user/root/borgmatic_hooks.myhostname_root.yaml 'start' "{configuration_filename}" "{repository}" "{output}" "{error}"
    48    after_backup:
    49        - /home/jobs/scripts/by-user/root/borgmatic_hooks.py /home/jobs/scripts/by-user/root/borgmatic_hooks.myhostname_root.yaml 'finish' "{configuration_filename}" "{repository}" "{output}" "{error}"
    50    on_error:
    51        - /home/jobs/scripts/by-user/root/borgmatic_hooks.py /home/jobs/scripts/by-user/root/borgmatic_hooks.myhostname_root.yaml 'error' "{configuration_filename}" "{repository}" "{output}" "{error}"
    
  2. create the new repository

    borg init -e none /mnt/backups/myhostname_root.borg
    

Deploy

Run as user

Instruction number

root

*

  1. run the deploy script

  2. check if the backup service works

Nota

If you get an unknown repo error try adding this key: storage.unknown_unencrypted_repo_access_is_ok: true

Mount

Run as user

Instruction number

root

*

To mount the backup you just have to run the Systemd service

systemctl start borgmatic-mount.myhostname_root.service

To unmount, stop the service

systemctl stop borgmatic-mount.myhostname_root.service

Other

Databases

Vedi anche

  • How to backup your databases - borgmatic 9

Run as user

Instruction number

root

*

Borgmatic also support backing up databases. Just put [] as location.source_directories and add a database object in the hooks section.

Running the service before computer shutdown

Vedi anche

  • linux - How do I run a script before everything else on shutdown with systemd? - Super User 10

  1. change some of the original borgmatic service Systemd unit file lines with these:

    ExecStart=/bin/true
    RemainAfterExit=yes
    TimeoutStopSec=infinity
    ExecStop=/usr/bin/borgmatic --config /home/jobs/scripts/by-user/root/borgmatic.myhostname_root.yaml --syslog-verbosity 1
    

Although this service remains active all the time, the syncronization action runs when the system is halted using an ExecStop directive. Since we don’t know how much time the syncronization takes, a TimeoutStopSec=infinity directive is present.

Automatic backup on a removable USB drive on plug in

  1. create a partition on a block device

  2. create a filesystem. In this example the filsystem’s UUID is ABCD-0123 and is obtained with this command

    udevadm info --name=${partition} | grep "ID_FS_UUID="
    
  3. add its entry in the fstab file, for example

    /etc/fstab
    1UUID=ABCD-0123   /mnt/backups/myhostname_root.borg            btrfs       nofail,auto,rw,relatime     0 0
    
  4. create a new udev rule to enable the auto mounting

    /etc/udev/rules.d/99-usb-automount.rule
    1ACTION=="add", SUBSYSTEMS=="usb", ENV{ID_FS_UUID}=="ABCD-0123", SUBSYSTEM=="block", RUN{program}+="/usr/bin/bash -c '(/usr/bin/systemctl start root.mount && systemctl start borgmatic.myhostname_root.service && /usr/bin/systemctl start udev-umount.myhostname_root.service) &'"
    
  5. reboot to apply the rules

  6. plug in the USB device and check if the service starts

Mounting backups on other computers

Let’s say computer A backups on computer B, but A is offline.

You can access A’s backups via B on a third computer, C. C just needs to have SSH access to B and a copy of A’s original borgmatic files.

Footnotes

1

https://software.franco.net.eu.org/frnmst/automated-tasks GNU GPLv3+, copyright (c) 2019-2022, Franco Masotti

2

https://torsion.org/borgmatic/ GNU GPLv3+, copyright (c) 2014-2022, Dan Helfman and borgmatic contributors

3

https://torsion.org/borgmatic/docs/how-to/monitor-your-backups/ GNU GPLv3+, copyright (c) 2014-2022, Dan Helfman and borgmatic contributors

4

https://torsion.org/borgmatic/docs/how-to/deal-with-very-large-backups/ GNU GPLv3+, copyright (c) 2014-2022, Dan Helfman and borgmatic contributors

5

https://medspx.fr/projects/backup/ CC-BY-SA 4.0, copyright (c) 2022, Médéric Ribreux

6

https://projects.torsion.org/witten/borgmatic/raw/branch/master/sample/systemd/borgmatic.service GNU GPLv3+, copyright (c) 2014-2022, Dan Helfman and borgmatic contributors

7

https://projects.torsion.org/witten/borgmatic/raw/branch/master/sample/systemd/borgmatic.timer GNU GPLv3+, copyright (c) 2014-2022, Dan Helfman and borgmatic contributors

8

https://borgbackup.readthedocs.io/en/stable/usage/init.html?highlight=encryption BSD-3-clause license, Copyright: 2015-2020 The Borg Collective

9

https://torsion.org/borgmatic/docs/how-to/backup-your-databases/ GNU GPLv3+, copyright (c) 2014-2022, Dan Helfman and borgmatic contributors

10

https://superuser.com/a/1016848 CC BY-SA 3.0, le_me (at superuser.com)